Solar panels are devices composed of multiple solar cells, also known as photovoltaic cells, that convert sunlight into electricity. The working principle of solar panels is as follows:
1. Sunlight enters the solar panel.
2. The photons in the sunlight hit the material such as silicon, causing the electrons within it to gain high energy.
3. Electrons with sufficient energy jump out of the material’s surface and flow into an external circuit.
4. The resulting current can be used to power electronic devices or stored.
Through this process, solar panels convert solar energy to usable electricity through the photovoltaic effect. Besides direct exposure to sunlight, factors such as reflectance and shading can also affect the efficiency of solar panels. Therefore, when using solar panels in daily life, attention should be paid to their installation location, angle, and maintenance to achieve the best power generation performance.